Historic stone working tools

A. Hammer / Club hammer

Club hammer are the basic tools of each dry stone Mason. The weight of the hammer should not exceed 1 kg. Long work with a too heavy hamme can damage the tendons of the hand.

Hammers and Club hammer should basically always consist of softer steel as the chisel which will hit. It is now not easy to find unhardened Club hammer. Commercial steel items for building trade can be burnt out but, to pick up the hardening of steel.

While a wide variety of different Club hammer forms were used, only unit types are available. Here are some examples of earlier common Club hammer forms, which were adapted to the rock to be edited.

source: Gotthard railway, excerpt from the rules of the Bedingnisheftes over the execution of masonry", 1873

Also the different long stems and the shape of the Cabinet for drooping stems are interesting in addition to the various forms of head.

Drilling hammer for hand drilling round holes in stone:

source: Gotthard railway, excerpt from the rules of the Bedingnisheftes over the execution of masonry", 1873

B. tool stems

"Stielologie"

, There is today no material that can replace the classic wooden stems. When it comes to durability and ergonomics (prevention of vibration in your hand), wood is still the best stalk material for tools. The today machine-made stems made of ash wood are often worth much. Handles made of Hickory wood are better.

Hereinafter referred to some historic stem forms (Club hammer stalks were executed as drooping stems!).

source: Gotthard railway, excerpt from the rules of the Bedingnisheftes over the execution of masonry", 1873

C. chisel

Chisel today usually tungsten carbide, hardly forge options

Previously forged chisels with variously shaped top, tailored to the hardness of the rock to be processed. Here are some examples:

source: "Guidelines for the version of natural stone masonry according to the specific provisions of the SBB" / 1946

To the comment: "To keep in mind is that the granite pointed iron have not a full tip, but one about 6 mm wide cutting edge"

D. various hand tools for the stone working

Wedge hole chisel [cape chisel]. This chisel was used for the production of rectangular wedge holes. The stones could be split by using metal wedges, which were in this rectangular Löcherochlagen.

source: "Guidelines for the version of natural stone masonry according to the specific provisions of the SBB" / 1946

E0. Natural stone hand drilling details

< Div > holes in rocks to drill the possibility, is central to the construction of buildings from natural stone. With this technical ability could only stone materials in sufficient quantity mined and brought in the right form. < br/>
< Div > the first drilling rig as a machine was built in 1848. Prior to this time, drilling holes in stone was hand work.

Hand drill alone / together

< Div > after each blow, the drill was shot (about 1/8 turn). The art of hand drilling consisted of lead the drill always beautiful centrically.


were distinguished in the following hand held drill:
Churn or ball drill (hand drill without hammer, vertical holes) [ 1]
Plug drill / hammer drill / jumper drill (hand drill with hammer, holes in all directions) [ 1]

< Div > the "churn"drill (l = 7 ft / 2.1m) was raised and then dropped. In the middle of the drill rod, an additional weight was attached to the reinforcement of the shock, usually in the form of a metal ball. For deep holes (> 90cm) the churn drill was served by more than one person. For vertical holes, the Churnbohrer was the most effective drill method [ 2]

< Div > the "hammer-drill" with a simple cutter or with a star-shaped cutter (Star-drill), was used by was beaten with a hammer on the drill. In this way not only vertically but also horizontally and upwards could be drilled.


"A maennisch" drilling capacity:
2.6 ft / h. (5/8 inch diameter) = 78 cm / h [ 1].
60-80 Ponciottolöcher per day [ 1].
8 inch / h = 20 cm (rock of medium hardness) [ 3].

< div >

"Two maennisch" drilling capacity (1.5 inch diameter):
Granite: approx. 0.7 ft / h = 21 cm / h [ 1].
Basalt: approx. 1.1 ft / h = 33 cm / h [ 1].
Lime: approx. 16 ft / h = 48 cm / h [ 1].
2 feet/h = approx. 60 cm (rock of medium hardness) [ 3].

Drilling:

[ 4]

Several drills were used when drilling holes deeper than 60 cm, the diameter of which decreased with increasing depth of the hole. Such a "drill game" consisted of beginner -, middle and final drill. The art of hand drilling was always exactly axially to dan Bohrer lead [ 4].


sources:

< ol >

  • Handbook of rock excavation, methods and costs, Halbert powers Gillette, London, Hill Publishing Co., 1916
  • Brunner & lay, manufacturers of marble, stone, granite and bricklayers' tools, stone jacks, derricks, and contractors' supplies (http://quarriesandbeyond.org/articles_and_books/stone_magazine/brunne_an...)
  • the rock drill and civilization, Larry C. Hoffman, invention & technology magazine, vol. 15, issue 6, 1999
  • the construction with natural stone, Adolf Stoller, 1949
  • E1. Forms of hand held drill for stone

    Geometry of hand drills for Steinbohrarbeiten:

    source: Gotthard railway, excerpt from the rules of the Bedingnisheftes over the execution of masonry", 1873

    source: the construction with natural stone, Adolf Stoller, 1949